The analysis sorts the agreements according to their lifespan and assumes that x-quantil is an exclusive executive agreement, x ∈ [0, 0.1]. For example, x -0.03 assumes that the 3% of the least durable agreements are one-off executive agreements. It then omits these agreements from the analysis, executes the preferred model (5) and counts the estimated coefficient on the contractual indicator and its standard defects. Keep in mind that the assumption that the least durable agreements are exclusive executive agreements is extremely restrictive. In fact, it is much more likely that some unique executive agreements will survive the agreements between Congress and the executive branch. This approach can therefore be expected to distort the sustainability of congressional executive agreements, making it more difficult to differentiate between tenure of contracts and executive agreements. While it can be shown that even in these restrictive assumptions, contracts are viable, this is particularly strong evidence of an increase in the lifespan of contracts. On the other hand, opponents of substitutability point to the lack of clear textual support. In search of a strict conception of the Constitution, the treaty clause is clear when it comes to making the deliberation and approval of the Senate the exclusive method of approving international agreements. Footnote 32 An alternative view resulting from a more flexible interpretation of the Constitution indicates that both the treaties and executive agreements of Congress have their respective areas of application.
The argument is based on the idea that the U.S. Constitution has given limited powers to Congress and the President and that executive agreements can only be used to a limited extent. Treaties as a standard instrument for foreign affairs are not limited in the same way. Therefore, where a foreign policy issue is outside the powers assigned to Congress, the treaty is seen as the exclusive instrument for making legally binding commitments. Footnote 33 International agreements can be repealed at any time, so survival periods are continuous. However, as noted above, survival times are measured only once a year on the basis of TIF publication. In principle, continuously grouped data allows the application of parametric and semi-parametric models. However, as explained in the appendix, the semiparametric derivative of the modelFootnote 90 cox-proportional is most appropriate for the current scenario, footnote 91, as it is a semiparametric model based on a small number of assumptions. Footnote 92 The complementary log-log model serves as a robustness test. 75 This decision is based on the rationale that the President-in-Office has the most influence on its content at the time the agreement was signed.
However, the content of all results is the same when a categorical variable is used for the president under whom the agreement came into force. Relevant regressions are included in the online schedule. 89 The agreement is in effect until at least 2012, perhaps longer. An executive order is a directive signed, written and published by the President of the United States, which manages the affairs of the federal government. They are numbered continuously, so executive orders can be referenced based on their assigned number or theme. Other president`s documents sometimes look like executives in format, formality and expense, but have different objectives. The proclamations, signed and numbered one after the other, provide information on public holidays, commemorations, federal observances and trade. Administrative orders (z.B. Memos, communications, letters, messages – are not numbered, but are still signed and are used for the management of the administrative affairs of the federal government.