To analyze these forces, we are expanding the model of intra-company trade (1987). While Venables considered a single dimension of product differentiation that created a « love of diversity, » we add a second dimension of differentiation where people in different countries have different ideals. A person pays a cost of supply when he consumes something good that differs from his ideal in this dimension. Companies can adapt their brands to alternative target markets, either to satisfy consumer tastes and thus stimulate demand, or to meet the standards imposed by the local regulator. However, companies are paying the price of adapting to the design to provide different versions of their brand, as Lamy points out. In order to expand the scope for more efficient product regulation, we also have the opportunity to create consumer externalities, but in our first passage below, we turn away from these considerations. Another important type of trade agreement is the Trade and Investment Framework Agreement. TIFA provides a framework for governments to discuss and resolve trade and investment issues at an early stage. These arrangements are also a means of identifying and working, if necessary, for capacity building. Grossman, G M, McCalman, P and R W Staiger (2019), « The new » economics of trade agreements: From trade liberalization to regulatory convergence? CEPR Discussion Paper No. 13903. All agreements concluded outside the WTO framework (which provide additional benefits beyond the WTO level, but which apply only between signatories and not other WTO members) are considered to be preferred by the WTO. Under WTO rules, these agreements are subject to certain requirements, such as WTO notification and general reciprocity (preferences should apply equally to each signatory to the agreement), where unilateral preferences (some of the signatories enjoy preferential market access to the other signatories without reducing their tariffs) are allowed only in exceptional circumstances and as a temporary measure.
 The failure of Doha has enabled China to reach a global level of trade. It has signed bilateral trade agreements with dozens of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Chinese companies have the right to develop the country`s oil and other raw materials. In exchange, China offers loans and technical or commercial assistance. One definite prediction is that international trade agreements will continue to be controversial. One of the fundamental accounting concepts of the international economy is that a country`s overall balance, which consists of both the current account balance and the balance of capital, must be balanced. This means that, when the current account balance is balanced, the country`s capital balance must be balanced by the same amount. The capital account consists of purchases or sales of foreign currency by the central bank or by individuals. This fundamental principle of account can be considered: Adam Smith then challenged this dominant thought in The Wealth of Nations in 1776.  Smith argued that if one nation is more efficient than another country in manufacturing a product, while the other nation is more efficient in manufacturing another product, then both nations could benefit from trade.